Connecting the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas, Muğla is known where the time has stopped, the history and nature are protected, sea and pine forests are intertwined like an aquarium.
Located in the south of the Aegean Region, Muğla conquers the hearts of visitors with both its historical and cultural values, preserved from antiquity to this time, and its soul-warming sun, sparkling sea and untouched bays.
The first human settlement in Muğla, which has been home to many civilizations throughout history, dates back to the pre-historic period according to the rock paintings in the caves in the region.
Visitors to Muğla, while enjoying the sea, sand and sun on the one hand, visit hundreds of museums and archaeological sites in the region, and take a journey through history as well.
Muğla Culture House
Muğla Culture House (Muğla Kültür Evi) is one of the most loved and visited places. It is possible to see both Turkish and Greek architecture together in the House of Culture, which dates back to the 1800s and was nationalized in 1999.
Our museum is built upon a two-storey rectangular plan with an open courtyard and has Archeology, Ethnography, Gladiators and Natural History Halls. In the Ethnography section, accessories of everyday clothing, utensils, paraphernalia related to the weaving and carpentry profession. The Gladiators hall has 7 Gladiator grave steles, which it received from the Stratonikeia ancient city; and animal and plant fossils of 9 million years are exhibited in the archaeology department.
The Yağcılar Inn’s (Yağcılar Hanı) history dates back to the 1940s. It was an important trade centre in the city's past. There is a resting area under the shade of the plane tree in the courtyard of the restored inn, which ones consisted of former oil production facilities, called the yağhane. We recommend that you take a tea break under this plane tree during your trip.
Saburhane Square (Saburhane Meydanı) is a typical settlement where the unique architectural character is shaped in harmony with the geography, and where two different cultures, Turkish-Greek or Muslim-Christian, live together. The square takes its name from the prison that used to be located here. Saburhane Square is an exemplary Urban Site with nearly 400 registered houses, nearly 170 examples of civil architecture, nearly 100 streets, old inns, fountains, bazaars, squares and mosques. Some houses can be reached by passing through courtyard gates in the dead ends. Porches and Patios, wooden decorations, verandas, closet-shaped bathrooms embedded in the wall are the distinctive features of Muğla houses and the houses in this region.
Muğla Houses and their Chimney
Natural and genealogical-cultural environmental factors play an important role in shaping the traditional Muğla houses, which are one of the important symbols of the city. It is possible to divide Muğla houses into two as Turkish houses and Greek houses. The distinction between haremlik and selamlık in traditional Turkish houses is not included in Muğla houses. The area opening to the garden in Turkish houses, which are generally built on two floors, is called "life". Greek houses, on the other hand, are usually two-storey stone-built houses with simple lines. The ground floor of the houses is generally planned as a warehouse and the upper floor as a living space. The fact that the houses facing the street or the road are not separated by a wall shows the status of the merchants in the society.
The most important feature that distinguishes Muğla houses from other houses in the region is their chimneys. Climate plays an important role in shaping Muğla chimneys. Chimneys are shaped in a rectangular shape by covering the top so as to block the wind and rain. The “Muğla Chimney (Muğla Bacası)” formed by the unity of Turkish style tiles in the hands of stone masters has become the symbol of the city.
Historical Arasta Bazaar
As the only factor connecting the city to the outside world was the İzmir -Aydın -Cine, Tavas-Denizli route, the caravans using this route were passing through Muğla. Camel caravans entered the city from today's Sekibaşı Street and, following this road, they reached the centre and stayed in Yağcılar Inn and Kocahan Inn in the region, which is still the commercial centre of the Urban Protected Area today. The caravans left the city from the Saburhane district, reached Tavas on the "Yılanlı Mountain Road (Yılanlı Dağ Yolu)", which is still present today, and from there they passed to Denizli. It is known that Inns, like the Yağcılar Inn (Yağcılar Hanı), İbrahim Inn (İbrahim Hanı), Bacılar Inn (Bacılar Hanı), Balcıoğlu Inn (Balcıoğlu Hanı), Konakaltı Inn (Konakaltı Hanı), and the Kocahan, which is not existing anymore, were the most active places of the city in the past. They were located on the route through which the historical caravan route passes. There were guilds of various professions in the Arasta Bazaar (Çarşısı) and they gave their names to the places they were found collectively.
“Demirciler Arastası” and “Bakırcılar Arastası” are still called the same today. Tabakhane, which is located in the north of the Arasta, was an important trade centre within the city structure. The leathers processed here attracted a lot of attention from the caravans. Other goods that are important to the caravaners are fabric produced on hand-operated waving looms, forest products (timber), and high-quality lime extracted from the Hamursuz Mountain. The Arasta, which is a traditional trade centre, is located at the intersection of north-south and east-west axes on the former caravan route of Muğla, which is a region with commercial density, reflecting the historical texture of civil architecture.
Gümüşkesen Grave Monument
This magnificent monument was undoubtedly built for a high-level personality and family of Milas, such as a ruler or commander, upon the decision of the city council. It is situated in the area of the ancient city necropolis (cemetery) on the eastern slope of the Sodra Mountain (Sodra Dağı) on the borders of Milas. The tomb structure, built of marble with grey veins extracted from the Sodra Mountain quarries, rises on a flat platform due to the inclination of the land. Basically it consists of three parts: the burial room, in which the deaths were buried, the middle floor surrounded by columns where religious ceremonies were held, and the roof floor supported by these columns.
The ceiling of the roof, which was obtained as a result of the large marble blocks overflowing and narrowing inwards, was embroidered with geometric and floral motifs, as if emphasizing the importance of the person lying in the tomb, as well as the high level of workmanship in shaping the stone.
As a general form, which resembles one of the world's 7 wonders - Halicarnassus' Mausoleum, it is peculiar and has highly suggestive parallels in the Eastern Mediterranean and North Mezopotamia (South East Anatolia). Due to the construction technique and characterized grave marble decorations it is dated to the 2nd century medium.
Kurşunlu Mosque (Kurşunlu Cami) is an Ottoman-era mosque located in the Menteşe Balıbey District. It was built in 1493 by Es seyit Şücaaddin. The narthex was added by Şerif Efendi in 1900. Its minaret was built by Hacı İsmail in the same years. The most important feature of the mosque, which used to have a madrasah with thirty rooms in the past, and which makes it differ from other mosques in Muğla, is its large lead-covered dome. The hand-carved decorations inside the mosque were processed with madder colours brought from Rhodes. The main walls made of smooth cut stone bear the characteristics of Seljuk Architecture.
It was built by Sheikh Bedrettin in 1565. The mosque has been restored several times and the minaret was added in the early 19th century. The Şeyh Mosque (Şeyh Cami) is one of the oldest mosques in Muğla, and has an important place in history. Evliya Çelebi calls the Şeyh Mosque in Muğla, which he visited when in 1671, an important work.
It is located in the east of the city walls, at the area called Kepez. The narthex of the mosque with a central dome is covered with two cross vaults. The dome sits on lozenge patterned pendentives. The narthex (covered portico) is accessed through the arch at the north corner of the west facade, surrounded by a row of tiles. In addition, a wide door from the east provides direct access to the mosque.
The corner stones, door frame and arches are made of limestone. Ceramic cubes hidden inside the wall at the level of the pendants inside the mosque are to provide acoustics. Most of the cubes that emerged by pouring the plaster are broken. It is dated to the 14th century.
Firuz Bey Mosque
The building, which is located in the middle of a large courtyard in the Firuz Paşa District in the city centre, was built in 1394. The south of the mosque between Hisarbaşı and Yeldeğirmeni is in the middle of an area surrounded by madrasah rooms. The building is called “Kurşunlu” mosque because of its lead-covered dome, and also “Gök” mosque because of the colour of the marble used in the main walls. There are three entrances to the courtyard from three directions: south, north and east. The building, which has characteristics of early Ottoman architecture, has an inverted "T" plan.
It is located in Gölyaka Village (Gölyaka Köyü) within the borders of Bafa District in Milas District of Muğla Province.
It is the largest of the monasteries in the region. The monastery area consists of a large courtyard in the east and a small courtyard in the west completely surrounded by rocks. To the north of the small courtyard, there is an upper castle surrounded by walls, and a small shelter castle on a single rock to the south, fortified with loopholes.
There was probably a religious centre in the southwest. There are two chapels and a cave with an apse formed by a wall on the inside, used as a chapel. The entrance to the underground front room of the chapel is provided by a narrow staircase in front of the west wall of the church.
There are frescoes with scenes of Jesus' life, actions and death, the resurrection of Lazarus, the crucifixion of the Prophet Jesus, the tomb and the Anastasis (resurrection) scene, and other important events in Christianity.
In 1895, the first Mayor of Muğla, Hacı Kadızade Süleyman Efendi, and his wife Pembe Ana, wanted to replicate the one they saw in Damascus on their way to the Hijaz. So, they had the present clock tower built by the famous Greek masters Filvarus (Mikhail Constantine's son).
Myndos Ancient City
The city of Myndos is one of the cities mentioned by the ancient writers, often known as Gümüşlük today. It was established by the famous king Mausole of Caria. It is very easy to reach. Apart from the Byzantine churches, a few city walls, the remains of the fortifications mistakenly known as the Lelegian wall on the hill, and the ruins of the jetty and tower, there is almost nothing seen on the ground. However, if observed well, half-covered columns, mosaic traces, ceramic pieces can be seen almost everywhere under the ground. This city, which Alexander the Great had was besieged but failed to conquer, is a cute fishing village today.
It is one of the places that produced wine in ancient times. With the thought of being good for the stomach, Myndos wine was mixed with sea water and drunk. This custom was seen elsewhere in ancient times. The town of Gümüşlük, which is today's Myndos, is famous for its tangerine gardens. Even though not on a big scale, but rug weaving is also a part of the culture.
During Mausoleus era, Koyunbaba resort near Gümüşlük was used as a quarry. It is one of the places worth seeing.
Bodrum Ancient Theatre
It is a magnificent building dating back to the 4th century BCE. It is located in the north of Halicarnassus ancient city on the southern slope of Göktepe, which was used as a necropolis, i.e. a cemetery. It has all the characteristics of theatre theatre before the Roman Imperial Period. The Antique Theatre (Antik Tiyatro) is the only building that has survived from the Classical Age of Bodrum. Among the interesting features of the theatre are the altar, where the sacrifices were offered to Dionysus before the games, and the holes between some of the seats, which may have been used as a canopy. With a distance of 40 cm between each seat, the theatre has a capacity of 13,000 people.
Kadı Kalesi Church
The main structure of the Kadı Castle Church (Kadı Kalesi Kilisesi) is quite good, yet it is still empty and not used. Most of the structures attract attention as an example of the Hellenistic era. In the past, Bodrum judges gathered in these buildings to make important decisions. Kadı Castle Church was the most important place where local decisions were made during the Ottoman Empire (Osmanlı İmparatorluğu). It was used as the supply port of the navy during the Ottoman period and later played an important role in border trade with the island of Kos and Kalymnos.
The Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi) was built on the island, which was known as Zephyirion in ancient times, and which is a peninsula now. It was built in 1406 by the knights of St. Jean whose headquarter was Rhodes. Bodrum Castle preserves the original plan and character of the Knights Period and reflects Gothic architectural features. The Castle is the only well-preserved example of the St. John knights. It is also one of the best preserved medieval monuments in the world and stands as a monolithic heritage. In the construction of the castle, the stones left after the destruction of Mausoleion, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, were used.
After the St Jean knights left Bodrum in 1523, the castle was used as a prison by the Ottomans until the 19th century. It suffered damage through British and French bombardment during World War I.
Bodrum Underwater Archaeology Museum
Today, the Bodrum Castle houses the Bodrum Underwater Archaeology Museum (Bodrum Sualtı Arkeoloji Müzesi). The Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology is one of the most important of the world's few and Türkiye's only underwater museums. The museum received the "Special Praise" award in the European Museum of the Year competition in 1995.
There are 14 exhibition halls in Bodrum Underwater Archaeology Museum and it has the richest Eastern Mediterranean Amphora collection in the world. The shipwrecks of Yassıada, Şeytan Deresi and Serçe Limanı are also exhibited in the museum. 3 tons of broken and unbroken glass was removed from the ship that sank in the exhibition in the Serçe Harbour Shipwrecks Glass Debris Hall in 1025, which is the oldest sunken ship wreck in the world. In addition, the world's largest Islamic Glass Collection is exhibited here.
The Bodrum Archaeology Museum consists of the Karyalı Princess Hall, English Tower, East Roman Wreck, Turkish Bath Exhibition, Glass Shipwreck Hall, German Tower, Coin and Jewellery Hall, Glass Hall, Hidden Museum Snake Tower, Uluburun Shipwreck, Dungeon, Commander's Tower and Tektaş Glass Wreck sections.
The largest Amphorae Collection is also in the Bodrum Underwater Archaeology Museum. Next to the cross vault there is the Balta Tower, with the "Queen Island" hall.
Mausoleum Memorial Museum
Considered as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, the Memorial of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (a tomb built for Mausolus) is one of the most important historical places you should visit in Bodrum. Mausolus, one of the Hekatomnos dynasties, who was assigned as a Satrap to the Caria Region by the Persians, started its construction while still alive (in 353 BCE) and continued to be built by his wife and sister Artemisia when he died.
Mausolus, the most important ruler of the time, probably decided to make such an important structure in order to symbolize hiz immortality and greatness.
Synonymous with Bodrum’s history is the Turkish author of essays and novels, Cevat Şakir Kabaağaçlı, who is also known as the "The Fisherman of Halicarnassus. He wrote regarding the architecture of the Mausoleum: "Just think about it! Making something brand new by kicking all traditions… That drives you crazy! Whenever I think about this challenge, a tambourine and a drum roar inside me"
In the list of Seven Wonders of the World, Mausoleion's height is 80 ion feet. This is approximately 50 meters, the height of a 20-storey apartment building.
Ancient writers state that the architect of the building was Pytheos, who was also the architect of the Priene Athena Temple. Vitrivius says that the most important sculptors of the period worked in this building in the 4th century BCE. Bryaxis among the Sculptors was in fact from Caria; and he was the one, who sculpted the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia standing on a 4-horse chariot on top of the Mausoleum.
The monument survived for 1500 years, but collapsed during the earthquake in 1304. Today, the Mausoleum stays as one of the World’s Seven Wonders of the World.
Stratoniceia ancient city was founded in the 3rd century BCE. Syrian King Seleucus I. married his wife Stratonice to his son Antiochus. Antiochus then founded a city in the name of Stratonice, who was his stepmother and then his wife. According to the traveller and writer Strabon, the city was equipped with beautiful buildings. From the coins found during the excavations, it becomes apparent that the city started its independent coinage from Rhodes in 167 BCE, which continued until the time of Gallienus (253-268 CE). The acropolis of the city is on the top of the mountain in the south. This hill is surrounded by a wall. To the north, on a terrace on the slope, just below the current highway, there are the remains of a small temple built for the emperor.
Ruins of Heracleia at Latmus
Latmus is a Hellenic word. In ancient times, this region was known by this name because of the Mother Goddess Lada. The Hellenes changed the name Lada to Latmus and named their city after it. The city, which remained under the rule of Pleistarchus from the Ptolemaic dynasty for ten years at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE, was named Pleistarcheia during that period, and later renamed by Lysimachus to Alexandreia on the coast of Latmus, but these names were not permanent. Although it is not certain when the city was built, it was mentioned in the Battle of Miletos-Magnesia in the 2nd century BCE. Its importance grew after gaining independency during the Roman period. In the 7th-9th centuries, when it became an episcopal centre, many churches and monasteries were built. Heracleia at Latmus experienced its most brilliant period in the Hellenistic period. The city walls were enlarged by Lysimachos in 287 BCE and its length reached 6.5 km.
After a certain period, following the abandonment of Heracleia, monasteries and churches were built in the first half of the CE 8th century. 170 of the rock paintings symbolizing the transition from Paleotic to Neolithic time have been found.
Kaunos Rock-Cut Tombs
Kaunos, which is one of the most interesting places in Türkiye with its rock tombs, and once a commercially important port city, lost its port feature when the sea was filled with alluviums over time. The acropolis, which forms the heart of the city, was built on a 152-meter-high hill. The northern part of the city walls originates from the Middle Ages. The long wall starts from the north side of the harbour and extends to the steep cliffs beyond Dalyan Village. The northern part of the wall was built in the period of Mausolus, the famous Satrap of the Caria region in which Kaunos is located. His tomb is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World, and is located in Bodrum (Halicarnassos). The walls in the northwest direction are from the Hellenistic Period (323 BCE-30 BCE), and the walls extending towards the harbour are from the Archaic Period (750-475 BCE). At the foot of the acropolis is the theatre of the ancient city. One of the buildings that remained in the western direction of the theatre belongs to the basilica type church, while the others in the city are the remnants of the Roman bath and temple. The rock tombs, which can be seen from Dalyan, are dated to the 4th century BCE, were later also used in the Roman period. The cavities carved into the rocks, which you can see from the pier, are places where giant fires were lit that serve as lanterns to ships approaching the ancient harbour to carry cargo to Kaunos.
Knidos Ancient City
Knidos, affiliated to the Rhodes Regional Unit, is one of the most important Western Anatolian coastal cities. It is located on Tekir Cape, at the far end of the Datça Peninsula, where the Aegean and the Mediterranean Seas meet. Knidos had a developed trade thanks to the export of wine. The city surrounded by walls reinforced with round and angular towers had two harbours, a military and a commercial one. Important buildings and areas in the archaeological site are the Doric Temple, the Temple of Apollo and the Altar, the Round Temple and the Altar, the Assembly Building, the Corinthian Temple, the sundial showing the season and the time, the Theatre, the Temple of Dionysus and the Slope Houses, the Odeon, the Sacred Place of Demeter, the Necropolis and the Krio Peninsula. British archaeologist Charles Newton wrote in his diary while excavating in Knidos in 1858: “…a monumental tomb that Halicarnassos would be proud of: His mausoleum, a monumental statue of Rhodes cast from bronze: If there is Helios, the small town of Knidos, also likewise there is a statue of Aphrodite that he can be proud of; it is the statue that Nikomedes, King of Bithynia (north of Aegean region), reveals all the income of the city in return; All the debts of Knidos have been erased, but in vain…”Although the naked Aphrodite sculpture made by the sculptor Praxiteles for Knidos has not been found today, its pedestal can be seen.
Tlos Ancient City
In the 2nd century BCE Tilos entered the Lycian Union. Continuing its existence in the Byzantine period, Tlos, was one of the rare ruins that could survive until the 9th century. The transportation was provided through the Kemer district on the Fethiye-Korkuteli road, 13 km after the Yaka village Castle quarter. The history of the cities of Lycia is known to go back to the 5th century BCE. Since no older documents have been recovered, we cannot know the exact establishment of these cities, but life in Lycia starts in the 2nd century BCE. An axe found by chance in Tlos is also evidence that supports this thesis. Tlos is known to have existed in the 2nd century under the name Talaw.
Hekatomnos Memorial Tomb
The Hekatomnos Mausoleum and Sanctuary (Hekatomnos Anıt Mezarı ve Kutsal Alanı) is located in the Milas district of Muğla, one of the most important cities of the Caria Region in southwest Anatolia. The said Memorial Tomb and Sanctuary consists of the Temenos Wall, the Honour Column of Menandros, Podium and Tomb (Carrier Room, Tomb Room, Sarcophagus and Dromos). The Monuments has a unique value from various aspects: it is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it originates from an earlier period than the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, it is the monument of the father of Mausoleus, which also has the same dimensions, and it is the only one in these dimensions that survived to our days. The work, which is the most important grave monument of the ancient world and the representative of the cult of the dead, is at a high level in terms of both architectural design and other important branches of art, like sculpture and wall painting. Especially the "Sarcophagus with Frescoes" is the only example in Classical and Hellenistic Anatolia in terms of its size, quality and the prominent personality of its owner.
Xanthos-Letoon Ancient Cities (UNESCO Heritage List)
46 km away from Fethiye, close to the Kınık village, Xanthos is located within the provincial borders of Antalya. It was the largest administrative centre of Lycia in ancient times, and independent until it came under the rule of the Persians in 545 BCE. It was completely burned down approximately a century later. After this fire the city was rebuilt, even had undertaken the task of being the capital of the Lycian Union in the 2nd century BCE. The city later came under the control of the Romans, then under Byzantine rule and remained under Byzantine rule until the Arab raids in the 7th century. This centre, featuring the effects of Lycian traditions, and the Hellenistic and Roman periods, and which has traces of every civilization that inhabited it, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1988.
4 km from Xanthos, located within the borders of Muğla province, Letoon was the religious centre of Lycia in Antiquity. This sacred are contains the ruins of a monastery, a fountain and a Roman theatre, along with the temples of Leto, Apollo and Artemis. The largest temple dedicated to Leto, the mother of Artemis and Apollo, is the Leto Temple, which is located in the west. It was built in the type of a Peripteros, and is 30.25 by 15.75 m in size. The Apollo temple, built in the Doric style to the east, is less preserved than the Leto temple and is 27.90 by 15.07 m and with smaller dimensions. Located in the middle of both temples and being the smallest temple, the temple of Artemis is 18.20 by 8.70 m in size. Letoon is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List (UNESCO Dünya Mirasları Listesi) along with Xanthos.
The altitude of the Sedir Island (Sedir Adası) ruin is approximately between 0 meters and 15 meters. Transportation to the area is provided by daily excursion boats from Muğla Province, Ula District, Akyaka District or by boats located in Çamlı Village of Marmaris District.
The island, formerly called Kedreai, is a settlement east of the Bay of Keramos. The island, which was called "Şehiroğlu" in the Turkish Period, is now called "Sedir". The name also comes from the cedar tree but there is no cedar tree on the island today.
The island, which has a coastline of approximately 800 m, consists of three islands with Orata and Küçük Ada next to it. The settlement on Sedir Island was formed on the eastern side of the isthmos (isthmus) that divides the island into two. The theatre, holy areas, residence, harbor and many other important civil and religious buildings of the city are on this area surrounded by walls. Necropolis, a portion of the ports and other civil structures a located in the mainland on the eastern side.
In ancient times, lands including Sedir Island, were considered the property of Rhodos. Bozburun Peninsula is the part of the Rhodos Peraia, where Rhodos influence and domination was most intense throughout the ancient times. In the city, there is a theatre with a capacity of 2500 people, the Apollon Sanctuary, the Great Basilica, the Kıstak Church and the Agora.
The ancient city of Idyma, which has a history of about 2,500 years, is within the borders of the Akyaka town in the north-east corner of the Gulf of Gökova. Today, the ruins of the city of Idyma extend from Gökova village to the foothills of Kıran Mountain (Kıran Dağı). On the hill rising just north of Gökova village, remains of the acropolis (upper city) of the city dated to the BCE 4th and 3rd centuries are noteworthy. On the east side of the same hill, there is a necropolis (cemetery) that witnessed pain and sorrow. The tombs, which were obtained by carving the rocks along the hill, were built like a house to continue their lives after death. Some of the rock tombs were built in a richer style than other rock tombs, in accordance with the form of the temples we can see in many ancient cities in Anatolia, in order to show the socio-economic differences in their period. The best-preserved example of these rock tombs is the monumental rock tomb in the area called İnişdibi, between Akyaka-Gökova village. On the same road, the Byzantine castle stands on the low hill near Azmak.
Aminthas Rock Tomb
Within the borders of Fethiye, there are many rock-cut tombs carved on a steep rocky slope, 3 of which are temple type and others reflect examples of civil architecture. This tomb, which is one of the three temple types and known as the "King's Tomb" among the people, has remained relatively intact compared to the other two. Named as Aminthas Tomb (Aminthas Mezarı) due to the inscription "Aminthas son of Hermapias" on the central part of the east ante walls and dated to the 4th century BCE, this Ionic Regular in antis (temple type with two columns between the antes) is the projected form of the front facade of a temple on the rock. The other tombs, which are the symbol of the city and on the same steep slope to the east, are the best examples that give information about the metal and woodworking of the Lycian Region.
There is a depiction of a door divided into four main panels in the section opening to the burial chamber. In the interior of the room, there is a smooth and rough ceiling and three klines.
Telmessos Ancient City (Telmessos Antik Kenti) and rock tombs were seen by many travellers in the 18th and 19th centuries.
Kayaköy is a village 8 km south of Fethiye, was known as Karmilissos in ancient time. Although according to philological data the village dates back to 3rd century BCE, no findings were discovered that date back to later than 4th century BCE. All of the observed building groups on the hillside of the town were built by Greeks, who were settled there in the second half of the 19th century and in the first quarter of the 20th century through the rights granted to minorities by the Ottoman Empire The village was abandoned due to the Population Exchange between Greece and Türkiye. As a result the wooden doors, windows and exterior of the houses decayed due to natural factors the village appears like a ghost city. Before the village was abandoned, the 350-400 houses were built in a way that they did not obstruct each other in terms of view and light. The two-story buildings were not bigger than 50 sqm. The ground floors generally served as cellars. Each house had an underground cistern, where the rain water was collected from the roof at the entrance. In addition to the residences, there are many chapels among the houses, two large churches, a school building, and a customs building.
İztuzu Beach – Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta Caretta)
İztuzu Beach (İztuzu Plajı) is one of the last beaches where loggerhead sea turtles are found, and the second beach in the world that preserves its naturalness. The lovable inhabitants of İztuzu Beach, knowns as caretta carettas are 1-1.5 meters tall and 150 kilos in weight. These cute animals go to the beach, use their hind legs, dig various holes, lay their eggs in the most appropriate way and return to the sea. After the day is full, the hatchlings instinctively take the moonlight compass and head towards the sea. This job is not that easy, as it takes a long time to cover the beach and reach the sea with the tiny steps of the baby carettas. They have to go the way until the sun rises and it starts to get warmer. Those who fail to do so fall prey to the heat or to birds. Of course, when they reach the sea, the danger does not end. Until they reach a certain size, they cannot avoid becoming food for fish. The few carettas that can grow and reach a giant size return to this beach where they were born, following their instincts – this time to lay their eggs.
When the hatching time comes, light or fire is prohibited on this beach because it deceives the young and prevents them from finding the sea. Eggs are taken under protection and no permanent facility is allowed on the beach. During spawning, environmentalists from all over the world set up camp on the beach, and from time to time support the march to the beach.
Walking the ancient roads
Muğla has a great potential in terms of many alternative tourism types in addition to the sea-sand-sun holiday type. The Lycian Way (Likya Yolu), the Carian Way (Karia Yolu) and the Kanuni Trail (Kanuni Yolu) are trekking routes that are of great importance for trekking, which is an alternative tourism type.
The Lycian Way, one of the oldest known roads with a length of 540 km and connecting 19 ancient cities along its path, is regarded one of the 10 best long-distance walking routes in the world.
The Lycian Way, which has a history of thousands of years, and which is still used by nomads, starts from Fethiye and extends to Antalya. The Lycian road passes between the coast and mountains, and generally consists of Roman roads, old paths and mule roads. Along the course, there are beauties of nature such as Kabak Bay (Kabak Koyu), Cennet Bay (Cennet Koyu), Butterfly Valley (Vadisi), Patara, Kekova, Korsan Cove, Gelidonya Lighthouse, Adrasan, Çıralı; ancient cities such as Antiphellos, Sdyma, Letoon, Limyra, Simena, Xanthos, Patara, Apollonia, Chimera, Myra, Olympos, Phaselis.; It is possible to swim in virgin bays and stay in settlements, accommodation facilities or tents on the road.